1)      Topic – Changes in critical Geographical factors (including water bodies and ice-caps) (GS-1)



Concept of positive IOD’s is discussed. IOD’s refer to Indian Ocean Dipole in which cold waters accumulate in Indian Ocean near North Eastern part of Australia and which results in severe droughts in Australia and Indonesia and also severe floods in East Africa. This phenomenon of Positive-IOD’s is exacerbated by climate changed induced due to global warming, and is similar to El-Nino.

Question – What are the typical changes that are occurring in Indian ocean due to global warming?


2)      Topic – random



In this article following points are mentioned –

(a)    Pine trees intensive plantations in fallow, waste and agricultural abandoned land in Himachal Pradesh. Pine tree thorns are extremely inflammable and cause forest fires and they are not cattle feed nor fertiliser. Also, their thorns fill up the ground thus inhibiting the natural undergrowth.

(b)   Green Myth – Refers to the myth that all green label’s need not be environment friendly.

(c)    Again here the question is asked on Growth vs. Development. Installing factories creates a lot of pollution and if environmental hazards related to industrial growth are not taken care of in start then the whole exercise becomes futile.

(d)   Since, more than 55% of India’s population depends on Agriculture, so weather forecast and information decimation becomes a must to avoid the suicides of farmers.

(e)   Instead of Mega solar projects – Solar installations should be installed on roof tops.

(f)     Cycles are eco-friendly, health friendly. But, Kolkata police banned them because they are slow and obstructing the general traffic. This, decision should be revoked.

(g)    Poor people have access to government hospitals which are overcrowded and understaffed with less facilities and medicines. Private hospitals contain all but charge hefty fees. Government should take some step so that the private hospitals come in reach of poor.

(h)   Diseases, economic problems, destitution are common for old-age people. More old age homes needs to be established with community cooperation and co-operative model. Citizens should be involved and more private investment is needed, thus requiring favourable government policies.


3)      Topic – Science and Technology – developments and their effects in everyday life (GS-3)


Article talks about Genome sequencing, DNA sequencing data which results into tracing of the origins of any species. This topic could be asked in Biotechnology also.

Question – Describe the procedure of DNA sequencing and its uses?


4)      Topic – Issues relating to health (GS-2), Major crops and cropping pattern in Punjab and Technology mission i.e. Green Revolution side effects (GS-3)


Use of excessive pesticides has resulted in fatal diseases such as cancer, reproductive disorder, and birth of mentally retarded children. Economic problems relate to high price of pesticides thus resulting debt trap. A shift to organic farming is necessary and religious means such as accepting organic foods only in Gurdwara’s could be an effective solution.

Question – Has Green Revolution actually helped in increasing GDP while producing various side effects such as health problems costing millions and creating social cost? Comment.


5)      Topic – Indian Economic and issues and constrains (GS-3)


Inflation persistent at more than 8% became major hindrance in growth story of India. We, know that supply side constrains, storage capabilities and rural infrastructure, speculations are important but also important is to predict the changing consumption pattern of rural and urban areas to effectively tackle with the inflation. CPI consists of 50% weightage of food products and if food becomes costlier so it effects a lot of other sections like wages, health, and growth rate.

Question – What measures need to be taken to tackle the persistent inflation in Indian Economy?


6)      Topic – Sustainable development and Indian Rural Economy (GS-3)


Non-farm jobs are necessary for employing the extra labour and increasing the productivity, thus enhancing GDP. Also, it will result in income enhancement, and social peace and improve in quality of life. Bagh printing is one such non-farm activity, where cotton and silk clothes are printed with totally indigenous methods using organic colours and water. This system shows the elegance and rich past of our country and its skilled work force in textile industry. Many materials are exported and imported between different states thus showing inter-regional dependence.

This system also has many ill-effects of Indian economy such as non-participation of women, environmental hazards i.e. pollution of river water while having positive aspect such as waste management and original skill work having good demand.

Question – With reference to some non-farm related activities, discuss how the demographic dividend that India will gain could be properly utilised in rural areas?


7)      Topic – Indian Economy (GS-3)


Free Trade Agreements (FTA’s) and Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) are two important tools for enhancing the economic growth. But, all FTS’s have not been favourable to India and SEZ’s have failed to develop full potential and these needs to be reviewed. Companies act contains several strains that lower the ease to do business in India. Thus, meetings with stakeholders to discuss the major impediments to trade are necessary.

Question – Critically evaluate the major rules and regulations of Companies Act. Is it business friendly?


8)      Topic – Government Budgeting (GS-3)


Decision to increase the threshold of taxable income to 5 lakhs from 2 lakhs will result in more money availability in economy thus fuelling inflation, which in turn results in deterioration of savings. Common man who is not in formal sector is affected most, as he’s not benefitted at all by tax relaxation but it results in food inflation directly affecting him. Thus, answer is widening tax base, and reducing tax rates, which will result in more people included in formal financial mechanism.

Question – Discuss the direct taxes and indirect taxes and their distribution between Centre and States?


9)      Topic – Indian Economy (GS-3) and Effects of politics of other countries on India and its diaspora.


Instability in Iraq has resulted in several issues such as increasing prices of crude oil and supply security, Indian diaspora in Iraq and their safety, diversifying crude oil sources and importance of indigenous development of energy resources.

Question – Identify and discuss the major energy reserves present in world and India’s relation with those countries about the effective utilisation of those resources? (Topic – Distribution of Key Natural resources across the world GS-1)


10)   Topic – Conservation (GS-3)


Indian Star Tortoise found in Nilgiri Hills i.e. Blue Mountains situated in Western Ghats at the conjunction of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are very rich in flora and fauna. Indian Star Tortoise helps in seed dispersion and is entirely herbivorous. It is a species of least concern, but that status is changing fast due to trade in exotic species and culinary purposes. Habitat destruction due to forest fires, grazing, floods, bush fires have resulted in lessening the numbers.

Question – What is IUCN red list and which Indian species are critically endangered? Identify the places where these species are found in India.


11)   Topic – Ethical dilemmas (GS-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)


A very interesting read about the ethical technologies such as robotic cars and questions such as programming codes asking weather in case of an unavoidable accident, the car should try to save maximum lives or the lives of those sitting inside the car. This is the question to you also, that which option would you choose and why?


12)   Topic – Ethics (GS-4)


Direct question – Should drugs be legalised in sports?

The answer contains the ethical aspects such as the injuries faced by sportspersons force them to take drugs for safety and health but they can’t take it because of ban on such drugs. Also, excessive use of painkillers and analgesics is directly affecting their health. Regarding bad effect of legalising drugs on children, the article says that many things such as alcohol, smoking are banned for minors until the age when they are able to decide what’s right and wrong. Also, anti-drug rules just favour the illegal market and increase the crime rate.