COMMUNICATION, CONTROL, MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP
Communication systems are most important because without any communication and data flow there is no organisation, as organisations are made by individuals interacting with each other and working towards a common goal.
NATURE AND MEANING OF COMMUNICATION-
Now, this is the best concept and most important concept that you are going to read, which has biggest impact on your preparation of civil services. Just, think when you are writing your paper in examination, what exactly are you doing. Well you are communicating with another person who is supposed to check your copy.
Now, for getting maximum marks, you need to ensure that the receiver of your message understands the message fully, easily and the message is compatible with his previous inferences and experiences. (for eg. some professors can’t understand the higher technological terms that you use in your answer and that makes communication faulty and you receive less marks)
Okay, leaving that philosophical discussion apart, lets see what Maheshwari want’s to say –
He says that Communication means that something ‘common’ between the receiver and information sender. Here, three things are involved, i.e. a receiver and sender, second a method of communication eg. voice (mobile), written (email, blog) and third there is a common end between sender and receiver (i.e. if you are reading this blog, then you have pub ad as your optional)
function that communication plays in an organisation is that it gives it stability and helps to attain negative entropy because generally organisations are having positive entropy and susceptible to disintegrate. Also, there is a concept of feedback, which is important for handling the problem.
This concept has following components – Source – message sender, encoder – medium (e.g.) written words, channels (transmitter e.g. yahoo mail service), decoder – the guy who receives gets information according to his own frame of mind, experience and reference (e.g. – some professors won’t even read your answer and give marks on how much you filled up the page, while other prefer more quality than quantity – so use a mix of these two) and receiver ( the person receiving the message) and feedback (receivers response).
concept of noise – as noise hinders proper communication, so in technical terms its the factors that reduces message fidelity (purity).
PERCEPTUAL (comprehending) PROCESS
Now, we are talking about if you are able to understand what I’m writing here. (pub ad concepts are funny as they are just saying our general experience of everyday in theoretical manner :P)
Now, when you send a message to other guy, how they receive it depends on their own personal values, conditions, need and emotions.
and second thing that matters is what they think of you?
For eg – Right now, I’m a Civil Services aspirant, so if I suggest or write something right now, they are not going to affect you that much. But, these same messages hold considerable weight if I get selected in Civil Services with a good rank. This happened because your perception about me has changed, and you consider my words as 100% true now.
FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION
As name suggests, formal communication is already set up the rules and regulations of organisation, who reports to whom, where does initial process starts,frequency of such communications, mode – written or oral, hierarchy etc.
While, Simon points out that there is an ‘informal communication’ between different members of organisation who maybe not follow the formal patterns always. This social pattern develops due to interpersonal relations.
Pros – if administrator listens to them, then they are a good source of information
con’s – informal information is full of rumors and thus, formal communication is better. Informal system could lead to accidents.
Management Information System :-
Today with digitization of communication techniques, and data collection in e-format results in creation of huge data, most of which is useless (e.g. – US keeps tapes of all phone calls done in America for 1 month time). Now, taking decision on such huge data becomes difficult and thus comes the role of managing these data.
CONTROL IN ORGANISATION
Now, control is used to actually implement the decisions made and communications transmitted in organisation. Organisations survival and stability depends on proper control, to achieve its enumerated goals and objectives.
NATURE AND MEANING
Control is used to watch progress of work and to guard it against the possible failures. Now, this consists of 3 basis steps that are
(a) Setting of standards – From initial phase, standards are set out, so that the expected final outcome is known. The rules and regulations, procedure to be followed are clearly defined.
(b) Comparison of actual performance against standards :- This steps consists of two very important concepts of monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring means that the goals are set, and work is in progress, and in between regular inspections are done to ensure quality, adherence to rules, and timely completion. When work is finally completed, then comes evaluation, which is the comparison of final result achieved with the standard set before.
(c) Taking corrective action – After doing evaluation, if any faults are found, then it needs to be rectified. Here comes the role of feedback. Sometimes, even after project completion, continuous evaluation needs to be done for a longer time, such as studying the effects of a dam made on catchment area.
Now, what is to be accepted as satisfactory performance? – again 3 dimensions i.e. quality, quantity and time.
In evaluating government programmes, output and input needs to be precisely defined. Sometimes, externalities are main outputs, such as road made should lead to access to a urban market for rural areas. Also, some government programmes take long time, to produce results. Eg – afforestation programme, Ganga river cleaning programme, Drought areas capacity building programme. etc.
Programmes for specific groups such as marginal farmers suffer’s leakages. For eg. – Antyodaya Anna Yojana is for most poor people, but affluent people who hold BPL card could also take advantage of such schemes. So, comes – specificity
then, comes areal distribution – i.e. spacial part
In government programmes, productivity is not the only concern. The concepts of morality and legality also matter. The project should be according to laws, rules and regulations. Thus ‘integrity’ and ‘honesty’ of officers become very important aspects. But, sometimes, these aspects result in delay and thus reduce productivity.
Offcourse this topic means how to control the organisations results, goals, objectives, its employees performance, managers performance, overall client satisfaction etc.
So, for this purpose, strategic plans are made for long term objectives of the organisation known as corporate plans. The main problem with corporate planning is to formulate correctly the long term projections.
So, another method known as PPBS (planning, programming, budgeting system) was used in public sector. In this system first the final objectives are clearly formulated, cost-benefit analysis done, and then only budget is passed.
Now, how does it help in control? Well, in any public system, there are various departments with their own demands. Now, their demands are fulfilled according to their performance, and the plan made before passing budget. This helps in financial control specially input control.
Management by objectives (MbO) developed by Peter Drucker, is another control tool, in which the objectives and targets to be achieved by each manager are specifically mentioned and then they have to achieve those objectives. Their performance is compared from standards set in end. This method is used where, the outputs are precisely quantifiable. Also, interpersonal relations are having huge effect in this method.
Another control method is performance appraisal, in which the performance of all employees are evaluated. This results in 2 things. First, measuring the ‘satisfactory’ level of work by employee, and second, the personal satisfaction of employee. Both are important for organisational stability.
In strict hierarchical systems, what happens is that superior people, use this tool harshly and make people working under them submissive. Thus, for performance appraisal to work, it should have a interactive method rather than a one way method as in bureaucracy.
OTHER AGENCIES OF CONTROL
Public and press – public protests and active press automatically lead to course correction by government if its policies are not popular and it heads to such protests.
Legislative control over executive in a democratic country – for eg. Public Accounts Committee – Scrutinizes the expenditure made and CAG report, Estimates committee – before granting any budget it goes through this committee, debates and discussions in parliament etc.
Judiciary also controls the executive decisions and keeps them within law. Other controls are financial control by Finance Ministry which keeps watch over budget demands and expenditures of various departments. Then comes the role of CAG i.e. audit control (independent authority) – which makes sure that the expenditure was made in accordance with law, and funds were properly authorized by competent authority.
Personal control – rules and regulations are made for people working, and inventory control – control on the expenditure of subordinate offices by limiting their purchase of inventory.
BEHAVIOURAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONTROL
Function of control is to make participants conform to organisational goals. This brings 2 people in interaction with each other. Superior controls subordinates and his behavior and subordinate both matter a lot.
McGregore gave two theories – X and Y based on human behavior and nature.
Theory X – Humans don’t want to do work, are lazy, and need to be directed and controlled. they don’t want to take decisions, and security of service is of paramount importance to them
Theory Y – Average human being likes to do work. He doesn’t want to be threatened to do work, or punished, but exercises self control. commitment to objectives is related to awards associated with it. and humans learn not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Negative aspects such that avoidance of work, responsibility and lack of ambition with more emphasis on security are due to experience not human nature.
So, if people are not responding to work efficiently then according to theory Y its problem of manager’s control methods and organisation. So, the control system should be flexible and variable.
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY CONCEPT.
Here Abraham Maslow has give a beautiful theory according to which, people have a some basic needs, which they wanna get fulfilled. These are security needs, psychological needs, self-actualization needs, Social needs and Esteem needs (self-respect, ego satisfaction etc.)
So, they take orders from superiors in order to satisfy these needs as motivator.
But, this concept is not whole, because it takes control only in terms of individual level, whereas the organisations as such sets the terms and conditions of control which are exercised by the superiors.
CONTROL AND MOTIVATION
2 types of basic motivations are there. Internal and external. Internal motivation you have already read before in maslows’ hierarchy of needs. External factors neglect the internal motivations and they work on punishments and rewards in order to motivate and control the behavior of employee.
HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION HYGIENE THEORY
Herzberg told that two things (factors) influence human’s, first increase job satisfaction and take care of motivational needs and the other are lead to job dissatisfaction.
Man want’s to avoid pain and insecurity. So, these are survival instincts. Second, man has psychological needs, i.e. to achieve something, get recognised, work for growth and advancement.
Factors that lead to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) are company policy, administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status and security.
Similarly Likert has evolved 4 types of management systems, numbered from 1 to 4 with 4th one resembling Theory Y of McGregore and is most appropriate in which participative environment and decision making is dispersed in whole organisation. On participation, public and private policy converge.
Control structure is of three type, coercive, utilitarian and normative. This is one of the best concepts 😀
So, how it goes. In coercive type, people are threatened to work. non-compliance leads to punishment. So, here people feel alienated and work only because of power used on them. Ex – prison and concentration camps
In Utilitarian, gifts, rewards, salary benefits etc are presented to the workers for their work. Here, also people don’t feel motivated and do very calculative work. They feel no affection for organisation. eg – government schools, where teachers teach exactly the hours as given to them and don’t put extra effort for quality improvement of education.
Now, third is normative, in which people are attached towards the organisation morally and emotionally. They work for the sake of morality and duty, and thus are highly productive. Ex – religious ceremonies and voluntary service organisations.
The need of today is to make Government organisations from utilitarian to normative.
LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATION
Now again a very interesting topic. What do we understand about leadership has a theoretical aspect and that we will come to know here below.
First, of all in formal organisations leadership control is done by following five methods which are coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert powers. Coercive – Punishment such as suspension, reward – such as monetary increment, legitimate – formal authority of position, referent – personal relations between leader and employees, and expert – knowledge and its power to control and form authority.
Tasks of leadership in organisation are to formulate the organisational goals as per the demands. Then policy formation. Then, just percolate down the goals and policies so that subordinates are able to understand the organisational goals and values. The, maintain these core values throughout while lastly enforcing and satisfying discipline and order and taking care of competitive forces within organisation.
Group activity is the basic characteristic of organisations. Leadership should be effective in motivating groups towards the goals. There are four dimensions of effectiveness –
(a) promote relationship among the organisational members.
(b) make the members feel that they are important.
(c) make members work towards organisational goals
(d) make sure that the members are getting enough technical and material support in order to full objectives.
so, leadership has to take care of both ‘people’ and ‘productivity’.
— Now, read these two interesting concepts of ‘transactional’ and ‘transformational’ leadership.
Transactional leadership – it uses rewards, appreciation, and control to motivate the members towards achieving the organisational goals. Thus, members needs are satisfied and they work hard.
But, Transformational leadership is totally different. Here, the leader creates a personal relation, through intellectual stimulation. its his charisma that creates devotion among followers and brings commitment among subordinates, who’s performance increases due to this devotion.
Leadership should be creative, committed, and have followers.
Management – is content with present values and organisational culture, but leadership is creating ‘ values and cultures, providing new vision and direction to organisation. So, he finds new ways, and makes whole organisation motivated collectively.
Now, this is what a civil servant does in his capacity as a District Magistrate. He is the main coordinating authority who is responsible for the efficient functioning of various inter-departmental relations, coming under him.
Herbert Simon says that there are 2 types of coordination – procedural ( i.e. design of organisation – where rules are fixed and mostly it is related to the members of organisation) and substantiative (which is related to the product of the organisation which produces different things and coordination is required between them i.e. content of organisation)
Now, coordination is required because of inter-dependencies. So, lets see their types
(a) pooled inter-dependence – Organisation has a number of branches or departments and they are autonomous, but for final success of organisation, they need to work together.
(b) sequential inter-dependence – here output of one branch/department is input of the second, i.e. without first branch output, second can’t function
(c) reciprocal inter-dependence – here, different branches are interdependent, i.e. output of one is input of other and vice versa.
Now, if we have these 3 types of interdependence, lets see how to coordinate these types –
so, types of coordinating devices are (1) standardization – Here strict rules and regulations are made, and this is usually used for stable and repetitive situations.
(2) Coordination by plan – Here, deliberate planning is done for coordination between various branches, and is done in dynamic environment eg – government department functioning with each other.
but, (3) Coordination by mutual adjustment – this is done in most unstable cases, where constant communication and coordination are required, and situations are unpredictable – eg- military situations, war times etc.
Some general examples are coordination committees being made in governmental work. Sometimes a special task force is formed for a specific coordination process. In modern times – Data processing units and computer centers play an important role in coordination.
so, that’s all about Decision making, communication, control and coordination. Very-very important chapter. Every year, almost 30-50 marks comes from it or related to it.