Today I read 4 Chapters namely Chapter 33, 38, 39 and 40 from India since Independence: Bipan Chandra. I will write their summery here:-
Chapter 33 – Agricultural Growth and Green Revolution
This Chapter deals with how India liberated itself from curse of food deficit and ‘begging bowl’ image. Initially it describes how the base of Green revolution was made by making dams, research institutes and industrialisation in Nehru’s period. Then, critical situation of food in China war of 1962 and Pakistan war in 1965. After that, it is described how technology made possible green revolution. Then are described criticisms’ of green revolution namely loss of jobs for agricultural labourers, widening of regional disparity and marginalisation of small and medium farmers in taking profit from government programmes. Later solution of these problems follows. Then how Green revolution resulted in job creation, urbanisation, and removal of poverty?
If you know the answers of above questions then no need to read, else it’s a nice reading and will give good insight on the issue.
Chapter 38 – Indian Women since Independence
Introduction talks about how Indian women position considerably improved from 18th Century to 20th Century, and her gradual participation in Indian Freedom Movement. Role of Gandhi ji is detailed. Then Hindu code bill, Shah Bano Case, Dowry issues are given. Then, Pre-independence ‘All Indian Women’s conference’ and its roles are given. Then formation of several independent women movements is given. Their involvement in peasant, environmental, trade union and tribal is depicted nicely. Cases of organisations such as SEWA, Chipko movement, Mahila Mukti Morcha and Manushi Journal is given. Then role of women’s fight against dowry, liquor consumption, domestic violence and custodial rapes is given. Sati pratha, Shah Bano and Muslim women’s condition, gap in education between men and women, and between rural women and urban women, role of Panchayati Raj Act. Health and education, direct relation between Infant Mortality Rate and Totally Fertility Rate. Girl education needs and methods.
Overall very-very important chapter for mains and Essay.
Chapter 39 – The Post-colonial Indian State and the Political Economy of Development: An Overview
Introduction starts with explaining how India’s ideals of anti-imperialism, secular democracy, egalitarian and pro-poor orientation developed during freedom struggle. Role of decentralization is explained. Then is described communist struggle and its opposition. Concept of neo-colonisation, development of India’s economic policies up to 1991 reforms is given. Then is described adoption of democracy and its effects on industry, polity and society. Nehru-Mahalanobis strategy, Nehru’s imperial alignment, rise of communal politics, Panchayati Raj, terrorist insurgencies, strong state and centre debate, and growth of populism in politics.
General critical issues of Day to Day life are given in this chapter. Most concepts are general in nature but, if you don’t know much about above topics then give a reading.
Chapter 40 – Disarray in Institutions of Governance
In this chapter, role of Institutions namely Parliament, Police, Bureaucracy, Political Parties, President, Election Commission, Judiciary, Cabinet, Public Administration, Centre-State relations and corruption is given. All the topics are of contemporary relevance, showing how their present status developed gradually since Independence.
Remark – Must read for those who don’t know much about above topics.
News 30th April 2014.
This is a list of important articles from Today’s major news events. If you are not able to finish reading Newspaper daily, this list will help you to be in touch with major issues, while not wasting time on not so important news items.
Case study on legalising Cannabis due to more harmful Tobacco comes under ethics. (not necessary to read)
2) NGT asks states to take action against Ganga (national river) polluters especially sugar mills and Dairy farms.
3) Green tribunal stays wall construction in Rajaji National Park to not impede elephant movements. (find this park on map, it’s in Uttarakhand)
4) http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/uttarakhand-expert-panel-recommends-overhaul-green-clearance-policy-hydel-projects this article relates Biodiversity, development, environment and disaster management.
5) http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/half-world-s-economic-output-comes-middle-income-countries-un-report this report of UN announces that if we use PPP, then half of world economic output comes from middle income countries. Some data’s are given which are useless. No need to read article.
6) http://idsa.in/issuebrief/RevisitingIndiasNuclearDoctrine_schandra_300414 Indian nuclear policy based on ‘credible minimum deterrence’, ‘no first use policy’ and policy of ‘massive retaliation’. If you know the relation and working of these 3 policies then no need to study article.
7) http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=104954 This article tells about 8 core industries namely Coal, Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Petroleum refinery products, Fertilizers, Steel (Alloy + Non-Alloy), Cement and Electricity. Just remember these names. Article is useless. The Index of Industrial Production (IIP) is an index for India which details out the growth of various sectors in an economy such as mining, electricity and manufacturing. Its base year is 2004-05.
8) http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=104952 Must read article. President’s speech and contains many points which you can use in essay and GS answers.
9) http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/poachers-kill-rhino-in-kaziranga/article5962719.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly This source tells about poaching of Rhino in Kaziranga which is a World Heritage site. So, please find this site on map of India. Also, go through the following link and http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/IN/ get information about all cultural and natural heritage sites in India. Highly important for both pre and mains.
10) Goldman Environmental Prize which recognizes “individuals for sustained and significant efforts to protect and enhance the natural environment, often at great personal risk”. This is only important information.
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/a-nerve-of-steel-fetches-him-goldman-award/article5962651.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly No need to read article.
11) http://www.thehindu.com/news/international/world/south-sudan-heading-for-catastrophe-un-warns/article5962734.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly No need to read article, Just go through the link http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Sudanese_conflict_(2013%E2%80%9314) and get main points of South Sudan present civil war and its effects on India. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-27220244 There is also a problem of Child fighters being used in Africa. Go through it.
12) Article on use of Chemical weapons – http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27222300 in Syrian civil war.
13) http://www.bbc.com/news/health-27204988 Must read article on health issues.
14) Russia is “experiencing recession now” because of damage caused by the Ukraine crisis, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has said.
Please do comment if you like the post. Also, please tell me how I can rectify it and make it more simpler for you guys to understand. Thank you for paying a visit to the blog 🙂