Directive Principles of State policy for preliminary 2014

DPSP’s are very important, and every year 1 or 2 questions come in Civil Services preliminary examination from them. So, just go through these facts and try to remember them. 

Classification Of The Directive Principles:

Four categories are:
I. The economic and social principles
II. The Gandhian principles
III. Principles and Policies relating to international peace and security
IV Miscellaneous

The economic and social Principles:
The state shall endeavour to achieve Social and Economic welfare of the people by:
(1) providing adequate means of livelihood for both men and women. (Article 39 basically which has this above sentence specifically given, and this is also related to Article 41 Adequate work and 43 Living wages)
(2) reorganizing the economic system in a way to avoid concentration of wealth in few
hands. (Article 38 – securing social order and economic justice)
(3) securing equal pay for equal work for both men and women. ( Article 39)
(4) securing suitable employment and healthy working conditions for men, women and
children. ( Article 47 ) 
(5) guarding the children against exploitation and moral degradation. (Article 39) 
(6) making effective provisions for securing the right to work, education and public
assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement. ( Article 41)
(7) making provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity
relief. ( Article 42) 
(8) taking steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings
etc. (Article 43A – 42nd Amendment Act)
(9) promoting education and economic interests of working sections of the people
especially the SCs and STs. ( Article 46) 
(10) securing for all the workers reasonable leisure and cultural opportunities. (Article 43)
(11) making efforts to raise the standard of living and public health. (Article 47) 
(12) providing early childhood care and education to all children until they complete the
age of 6 years. (Article 45) 

B. The Gandhian Principles :
(1) To organize village Panchayats. (Article 40)
(2) To promote cottage industries in rural areas. (Article 43)
(3) To prohibit intoxicating drinks and drugs that are injurious to health. (Article 47)
(4) To preserve and improve the breeds of the cattle and prohibit slaughter of cows,
calves and other milch and drought animals. (Article 48) 

C. DPSP relating To International Peace And Security:
India should render active cooperation for world peace and security and for that the state
shall endeavour to : – (All the below Article 51)
(1) promote international peace and security. 
(2) maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
(3) foster respect for international laws and treaty obligations.
(4) encourage settlements of international disputes by mutual agreement.

D. Miscellaneous
The Directive Principles in this category call upon the state : –
(1) To secure for all Indians a uniform civil code. (Article 44)
(2) To protect historical monuments. ( Article 49)
(3) To save environment from pollution and protect wild life. (Article 48A – introduced by 42nd Amendment Act)

(4) To make arrangements for disbursement of free legal justice through suitable
legislation. ( Article 39A – 42nd amendment act) 

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24th June SR Maheshwari Chapter 10 :) Post 2 PUB AD

COMMUNICATION, CONTROL, MOTIVATION LEADERSHIP 

Introduction – 

Communication systems are most important because without any communication and data flow there is no organisation, as organisations are made by individuals interacting with each other and working towards a common goal. 

NATURE AND MEANING OF COMMUNICATION- 

Now, this is the best concept and most important concept that you are going to read, which has biggest impact on your preparation of civil services. Just, think when you are writing your paper in examination, what exactly are you doing. Well you are communicating with another person who is supposed to check your copy. 

Now, for getting maximum marks, you need to ensure that the receiver of your message understands the message fully, easily and the message is compatible with his previous inferences and experiences. (for eg. some professors can’t understand the higher technological terms that you use in your answer and that makes communication faulty and you receive less marks) 

Okay, leaving that philosophical discussion apart, lets see what Maheshwari want’s to say – 

He says that Communication means that something ‘common’ between the receiver and information sender. Here, three things are involved, i.e. a receiver and sender, second a method of communication eg. voice (mobile), written (email, blog) and third there is a common end between sender and receiver (i.e. if you are reading this blog, then you have pub ad as your optional) 

function that communication plays in an organisation is that it gives it stability and helps to attain negative entropy because generally organisations are having positive entropy and susceptible to disintegrate. Also, there is a concept of feedback, which is important for handling the problem. 

This concept has following components – Source – message sender, encoder – medium (e.g.) written words, channels (transmitter e.g. yahoo mail service), decoder – the guy who receives gets information according to his own frame of mind, experience and reference (e.g. – some professors won’t even read your answer and give marks on how much you filled up the page, while other prefer more quality than quantity – so use a mix of these two) and receiver ( the person receiving the message) and feedback (receivers response).

concept of noise – as noise hinders proper communication, so in technical terms its the factors that reduces message fidelity (purity).

PERCEPTUAL (comprehending) PROCESS 

Now, we are talking about if you are able to understand what I’m writing here. (pub ad concepts are funny as they are just saying our general experience of everyday in theoretical manner :P) 

Now, when you send a message to other guy, how they receive it depends on their own personal values, conditions, need and emotions. 

and second thing that matters is what they think of you?

For eg – Right now, I’m a Civil Services aspirant, so if I suggest or write something right now, they are not going to affect you that much. But, these same messages hold considerable weight if I get selected in Civil Services with a good rank. This happened because your perception about me has changed, and you consider my words as 100% true now. 

FORMAL AND INFORMAL COMMUNICATION 

As name suggests, formal communication is already set up the rules and regulations of organisation, who reports to whom, where does initial process starts,frequency of such communications, mode – written or oral, hierarchy etc. 

While, Simon points out that there is an ‘informal communication’ between different members of organisation who maybe not follow the formal patterns always. This social pattern develops due to interpersonal relations. 

Pros – if administrator listens to them, then they are a good source of information 

con’s – informal information is full of rumors and thus, formal communication is better. Informal system could lead to accidents. 

Management Information System :- 

Today with digitization of communication techniques, and data collection in e-format results in creation of huge data, most of which is useless (e.g. – US keeps tapes of all phone calls done in America for 1 month time). Now, taking decision on such huge data becomes difficult and thus comes the role of managing these data. 

CONTROL IN ORGANISATION 

Now, control is used to actually implement the decisions made and communications transmitted in organisation. Organisations survival and stability depends on proper control, to achieve its enumerated goals and objectives. 

NATURE AND MEANING 

Control is used to watch progress of work and to guard it against the possible failures. Now, this consists of 3 basis steps that are 

(a) Setting of standards – From initial phase, standards are set out, so that the expected final outcome is known. The rules and regulations, procedure to be followed are clearly defined. 

(b) Comparison of actual performance against standards :-  This steps consists of two very important concepts of monitoring and evaluation. Monitoring means that the goals are set, and work is in progress, and in between regular inspections are done to ensure quality, adherence to rules, and timely completion. When work is finally completed, then comes evaluation, which is the comparison of final result achieved with the standard set before. 

(c) Taking corrective action – After doing evaluation, if any faults are found, then it needs to be rectified. Here comes the role of feedback. Sometimes, even after project completion, continuous evaluation needs to be done for a longer time, such as studying the effects of a dam made on catchment area. 

Now, what is to be accepted as satisfactory performance? – again 3 dimensions i.e. quality, quantity and time. 

In evaluating government programmes, output and input needs to be precisely defined. Sometimes, externalities are main outputs, such as road made should lead to access to a urban market for rural areas. Also, some government programmes take long time, to produce results. Eg – afforestation programme, Ganga river cleaning programme, Drought areas capacity building programme. etc.

Programmes for specific groups such as marginal farmers suffer’s leakages. For eg. – Antyodaya Anna Yojana is for most poor people, but affluent people who hold BPL card could also take advantage of such schemes. So, comes – specificity 

then, comes areal distribution – i.e. spacial part 

In government programmes, productivity is not the only concern. The concepts of morality and legality also matter. The project should be according to laws, rules and regulations. Thus ‘integrity’ and ‘honesty’ of officers become very important aspects. But, sometimes, these aspects result in delay and thus reduce productivity. 

CONTROL DEVICES 

Offcourse this topic means how to control the organisations results, goals, objectives, its employees performance, managers performance, overall client satisfaction etc. 

So, for this purpose, strategic plans are made for long term objectives of the organisation known as corporate plans. The main problem with corporate planning is to formulate correctly the long term projections. 

So, another method known as PPBS (planning, programming, budgeting system) was used in public sector. In this system first the final objectives are clearly formulated, cost-benefit analysis done, and then only budget is passed. 

Now, how does it help in control? Well, in any public system, there are various departments with their own demands. Now, their demands are fulfilled according to their performance, and the plan made before passing budget. This helps in financial control specially input control. 

Management by objectives (MbO) developed by Peter Drucker, is another control tool, in which the objectives and targets to be achieved by each manager are specifically mentioned and then they have to achieve those objectives. Their performance is compared from standards set in end. This method is used where, the outputs are precisely quantifiable. Also, interpersonal relations are having huge effect in this method. 

Another control method is performance appraisal, in which the performance of all employees are evaluated. This results in 2 things. First, measuring the ‘satisfactory’ level of work by employee, and second, the personal satisfaction of employee. Both are important for organisational stability. 

In strict hierarchical systems, what happens is that superior people, use this tool harshly and make people working under them submissive. Thus, for performance appraisal to work, it should have a interactive method rather than a one way method as in bureaucracy. 

OTHER AGENCIES OF CONTROL 

Public and press – public protests and active press automatically lead to course correction by government if its policies are not popular and it heads to such protests. 

Legislative control over executive in a democratic country – for eg. Public Accounts Committee – Scrutinizes the expenditure made and CAG report, Estimates committee – before granting any budget it goes through this committee, debates and discussions in parliament etc. 

Judiciary also controls the executive decisions and keeps them within law. Other controls are financial control by Finance Ministry which keeps watch over budget demands and expenditures of various departments. Then comes the role of CAG i.e. audit control (independent authority) – which makes sure that the expenditure was made in accordance with law, and funds were properly authorized by competent authority. 

Personal control – rules and regulations are made for people working, and inventory control – control on the expenditure of subordinate offices by limiting their purchase of inventory. 

BEHAVIOURAL IMPLICATIONS OF CONTROL 

Function of control is to make participants conform to organisational goals. This brings 2 people in interaction with each other. Superior controls subordinates and his behavior and subordinate both matter a lot. 

McGregore gave two theories – X and Y based on human behavior and nature. 

Theory X – Humans don’t want to do work, are lazy, and need to be directed and controlled. they don’t want to take decisions, and security of service is of paramount importance to them 

Theory Y – Average human being likes to do work. He doesn’t want to be threatened to do work, or punished, but exercises self control. commitment to objectives is related to awards associated with it. and humans learn not only to accept but to seek responsibility. Negative aspects such that avoidance of work, responsibility and lack of ambition with more emphasis on security are due to experience not human nature. 

So, if people are not responding to work efficiently then according to theory Y its problem of manager’s control methods and organisation. So, the control system should be flexible and variable. 

MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY CONCEPT. 

Here Abraham Maslow has give a beautiful theory according to which, people have a some basic needs, which they wanna get fulfilled. These are security needs, psychological needs, self-actualization needs, Social needs and Esteem needs (self-respect, ego satisfaction etc.) 

So, they take orders from superiors in order to satisfy these needs as motivator. 

But, this concept is not whole, because it takes control only in terms of individual level, whereas the organisations as such sets the terms and conditions of control which are exercised by the superiors. 

CONTROL AND MOTIVATION

2 types of basic motivations are there. Internal and external. Internal motivation you have already read before in maslows’ hierarchy of needs. External factors neglect the internal motivations and they work on punishments and rewards in order to motivate and control the behavior of employee. 

HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION HYGIENE THEORY 

Herzberg told that two things (factors) influence human’s, first increase job satisfaction and take care of motivational needs and the other are lead to job dissatisfaction. 

Man want’s to avoid pain and insecurity. So, these are survival instincts. Second, man has psychological needs, i.e. to achieve something, get recognised, work for growth and advancement. 

Factors that lead to job dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) are company policy, administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status and security. 

Similarly Likert has evolved 4 types of management systems, numbered from 1 to 4 with 4th one resembling Theory Y of McGregore and is most appropriate in which participative environment and decision making is dispersed in whole organisation. On participation, public and private policy converge. 

CONTROL STRUCTURE

Control structure is of three type, coercive, utilitarian and normative. This is one of the best concepts 😀

So, how it goes. In coercive type, people are threatened to work. non-compliance leads to punishment. So, here people feel alienated and work only because of power used on them. Ex – prison and concentration camps

In Utilitarian, gifts, rewards, salary benefits etc are presented to the workers for their work. Here, also people don’t feel motivated and do very calculative work. They feel no affection for organisation. eg – government schools, where teachers teach exactly the hours as given to them and don’t put extra effort for quality improvement of education. 

Now, third is normative, in which people are attached towards the organisation morally and emotionally. They work for the sake of morality and duty, and thus are highly productive. Ex – religious ceremonies and voluntary service organisations. 

The need of today is to make Government organisations from utilitarian to normative. 

LEADERSHIP IN ORGANISATION 

Now again a very interesting topic. What do we understand about leadership has a theoretical aspect and that we will come to know here below. 

First, of all in formal organisations leadership control is done by following five methods which are coercive, reward, legitimate, referent and expert powers. Coercive – Punishment such as suspension, reward – such as monetary increment, legitimate – formal authority of position, referent – personal relations between leader and employees, and expert – knowledge and its power to control and form authority. 

Tasks of leadership in organisation are to formulate the organisational goals as per the demands. Then policy formation. Then, just percolate down the goals and policies so that subordinates are able to understand the organisational goals and values. The, maintain these core values throughout while lastly enforcing and satisfying discipline and order and taking care of competitive forces within organisation. 

Group activity is the basic characteristic of organisations. Leadership should be effective in motivating groups towards the goals. There are four dimensions of effectiveness – 

(a) promote relationship among the organisational members. 

(b) make the members feel that they are important. 

(c) make members work towards organisational goals

(d) make sure that the members are getting enough technical and material support in order to full objectives. 

so, leadership has to take care of both ‘people’ and ‘productivity’. 

— Now, read these two interesting concepts of ‘transactional’ and ‘transformational’ leadership. 

Transactional leadership – it uses rewards, appreciation, and control to motivate the members towards achieving the organisational goals. Thus, members needs are satisfied and they work hard. 

But, Transformational leadership is totally different. Here, the leader creates a personal relation, through intellectual stimulation. its his charisma that creates devotion among followers and brings commitment among subordinates, who’s performance increases due to this devotion. 

Leadership should be creative, committed, and have followers. 

Management – is content with present values and organisational culture, but leadership is creating ‘ values and cultures, providing new vision and direction to organisation. So, he finds new ways, and makes whole organisation motivated collectively. 

COORDINATION – 

Now, this is what a civil servant does in his capacity as a District Magistrate. He is the main coordinating authority who is responsible for the efficient functioning of various inter-departmental relations, coming under him.

Herbert Simon says that there are 2 types of coordination – procedural ( i.e. design of organisation – where rules are fixed and mostly it is related to the members of organisation) and substantiative (which is related to the product of the organisation which produces different things and coordination is required between them i.e. content of organisation) 

Now, coordination is required because of inter-dependencies. So, lets see their types 

(a) pooled inter-dependence – Organisation has a number of branches or departments and they are autonomous, but for final success of organisation, they need to work together. 

(b) sequential inter-dependence – here output of one branch/department is input of the second, i.e. without first branch output, second can’t function

(c) reciprocal inter-dependence – here, different branches are interdependent, i.e. output of one is input of other and vice versa. 

Now, if we have these 3 types of interdependence, lets see how to coordinate these types – 

so, types of coordinating devices are (1) standardization – Here strict rules and regulations are made, and this is usually used for stable and repetitive situations.

(2) Coordination by plan – Here, deliberate planning is done for coordination between various branches, and is done in dynamic environment  eg – government department functioning with each other.

but, (3) Coordination by mutual adjustment – this is done in most unstable cases, where constant communication and coordination are required, and situations are unpredictable – eg- military situations, war times etc. 

Some general examples are coordination committees being made in governmental work. Sometimes a special task force is formed for a specific coordination process. In modern times – Data processing units and computer centers play an important role in coordination. 

 

so, that’s all about Decision making, communication, control and coordination. Very-very important chapter. Every year, almost 30-50 marks comes from it or related to it. 

SR Maheshwari Chapter 9 Administrative Process: Decision making Post -1 PUB AD

Decision making according to me – 

First I must tell what I know about decision making. Well we constantly keep taking decisions in our life. Like my decision to appear in Civil Services Examination leaving my full proof career in engineering and my job. Why did I made such decision?

Well, its was a mixture of my aspirations, expectations from people known to me, my background, my own pro’s and con’s, and consultation from my family. Whatever be the case final decision was mine. 

So, what I think decision making is all about following – 

(a) Knowing the situation and problem where you have to take decision. (b) Knowing all the possible alternatives before finalising the final alternative which is best (c) consultations from peers, subordinates, superiors (d) requirements of the environment (for eg. if I’m working in a company what are company’s broad goals and are they compatible with my goal). (e) my own survival while I take a decision (f) different constrains, pressures and compulsions working on me while taking a decision. 

 

Now, lets move to the theoretical aspects and see if SR Maheshwari has something else to offer other than this simplistic structure how to make a decision – 

 

Introduction – He says that while in any organisation we constantly face problems and we have to find solutions to them. For working these solutions there should be a proper structure and flow of information. Also, many relationships are needed to be build while taking decisions. 

Decision making –  Two things matter (a) information that we have (b) the outer political atmosphere 

Approaches to decision making – 

(a) The bargaining approach – This approach tells that the decisions are made by the fact of bargaining between the parties involved in the decision making process. The relative strength of the parties matter more than the rational solution in such cases. Here, some parties may be totally neglected while taking a decision. Here, incremental-ism is followed in which the further decisions are based on the present structure and decisions taken till that date, while just doing structural and minor changes. 

for eg -During 18th century Britain wanted to have opium trade with China, where it was having a huge market, but opium consumption was primarily banned in Britain itself. When the China opposed it they waged a war, and finally china had to settle with a compromise because that’s what they could afford with the bargaining power they had in the complex situation. 

(b) Participative decision making approach – As the name suggests here, various stakeholders are allowed to participate and they are consulted before final decision is made. This is the basic tenant of Democracy, and also this is used in India in Local Governance in Rural and Urban bodies ( panchayati raj and municipality in towns). Some questions that are asked in this are what should be the level of consultation or sharing i.e who should be asked, and upto what level. For eg – Delhi government want’s to increase the tax on water supply. So should the normal public be consulted, or should it be totally administrative decision based on situations. 

(c) Public Choice – This approach suggests that the bureaucracy is self serving, and rational which takes decisions accordingly to promote their own career and the budget under them. So, the basic decisions should be contracted out to public, means that the government areas should be minimized and privatization should be promoted. The basic assumption that Government servants are always self-seeking is wrong, also its not about efficiency every-time, but also its about effectiveness and a general value and direction which government differ from private players. 

MIXED SCANNING 

Here it says that while making any decisions, we tend to collect data, and if we collect data very deeply then we are overwhelmed by so much data that making decisions become very tedious. Also, a huge data collection machinery is required. 

So, in order to simplify it, just have a general data collection of whole domain, but do specific focused data collection on troubled areas, which need more focus and are important. This means that you are using ‘rationalism’ (focused data) as well as ‘incrementalism’ (general data)

THE GARBAGE CAN MODEL 

This model tells that the real decisions are not made rationally but are made according to the organisational complexities prevalent during the problem phases. So, they say that as soon as the problems comes, people tend to find the solutions and put them all in one imaginary garbage can, while removing it one by one. So, overall its a backward looking and analyzing approach which doesn’t work well always in real situation where you have to take real time decisions. 

NATURE OF DECISIONS 

 There are basically 2 types of decisions being made. First is based on rational scientific management model, where different techniques such as linear programming and queuing theory are used (no idea about what these 2 are), and second approach is Behavioral aspect in which social causes and psychological aspects are given more preference. 

Actual decision is a mix of these 2 approaches. Regarding top level and bottom level, top level people generally take broad decisions which are known as policy decisions and smaller hierarchy takes sub-decisions on local conditions. 

PROGRAMMED AND NON-PROGRAMMED DECISIONS 

This is simplest concept. Programmed decisions are used for daily repetitive type work, where each case is almost same and you don’t have to make a new methodology to work out each case that’s coming to you for solving. For eg – you are a bank manager and you are assigned to give check books if customer fills up a form. Now, you don’t need new forms for every customer, or new format of check books to be given to them. So, they are called programmed – like just put problem in program and get solution. 

Non-programmed decisions are those decisions which need innovations, creativity, ingenuity, consultation and a degree of risk taking. They can’t be solved by the familiar procedures or precedents. You have to develop new methodology every-time such situation arises. For eg – farmers protesting for price rise of MSP in rice and wheat. 

SIMON’S BEHAVIOUR AlTERNATIVE MODEL 

Please by heart these basic terms – (a) value premises – based on values i.e. ends and means to achieve it (b) factual premises – based on facts i.e. knowledge and not on emotions. 

Also, Administrative man – He’s the decision maker who’s main priority is satisfaction. He works on his individual preferences, pressures, his own tilt towards a particular decision and thus is biased. 

Rational Economic man – He’s the decision maker, who always works on maximizing the profit. His decisions are rational without any bias or emotional attachment. 

Now, what’s the Simon’s model says is that the decisions should include both value premises and factual premises. So, before taking any decision proper research should be conducted and then all possible alternatives should be known. After that, there is a need to analyse the consequences of choosing a particular alternative one by one. Later, we need to compare all the consequences, and the best one among them should be chosen in end. 

Pro’s of this method are that its a rational model, and brings maximum satisfaction for decision maker and profit for clients, while cons are that this method can’t work in all situations such as in case of riots, the administrator has to take quick decision of using tear gas or firing, without having time to analyse all particular approaches and their consequences. 

ORGANISATIONAL CONTEXT OF DECISIONS 

Now, what context do you need for decision making. Well there should be a helping atmosphere to make decisions. 

So, according to this organisational context, (a) first there are definite rules and procedures which you will take help in coming to a decision (b) Decision space is limited by dividing work and span of control (c) Authority system i.e. giving a structure or hierarchy to the system. Its also helps in quality control, because broad decisions are taken at top level, but the larger-descriptive decisions are taken at bottom, which are then submitted to the top level guys, who can do scrutiny in it, thus improving quality. 

Also, this system helps in developing a organisational atmosphere, gives time to socialize, and also have studies on employees and their needs and working qualities. ( Almost present bureaucratic type system). Interpersonal relations are important because any rift may hamper data flow, communications and thus reduce the optimum decision making capacity. 

 

24th June, Only for PUBLIC Administration optional people —

Well my optional is public administration, and I think I’ve no clue about it. Yes, I’ve read some books named Prasad and Prasad and some chapters from Rajni Arora and Goyal, but do I know the real stuff that this subject demands. I don’t know 

So, I’ve decided to make things interesting for me in public administration. Something innovative is required above the practical definitions that we keep on reading and mugging up in our text books. 

So, I’ve decided that the next ten days except reading newspaper, lets do comprehensively public administration and try to figure out what really this subject is all about. 

Yes, I’m going to make some online notes stuff and keep you updated. I disclaim here that these notes, may be totally misleading and they are just my own understanding of the subject. I may write a lot of bogus stuff here, but hey that’s what public administration all about. 

Making up a theory and implementing is called science, and scientific ways work eventually towards making some activity regular, rational and critical. So, lets do this rational analysis of PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. 

Yes – I will also tell you strategies how to get good marks. All though it would seem kiddish that I myself giving this examination 1st time, having age of 21 want’s to write a full fledged blog on public administration whereby I never had any previous study in public administration. But, the examination patterns have changed so much that I don’t care if I’m very learned or not. Its not only about quality, its about presentation, expression, playing with the mind of the examiner and just a way of communication with the other guy who is checking your copy. 

 

The results of this year, are proof that first timers have more chances. Even someone if starts this day could be a IAS in next 6 months to come when mains will be given. 

So, what will be the structure of public administration discussion — 

1st phase – Read Maheshwari, rajni arora and goyal, Nicholas henry, and prasad and prasad. 

Now, our basics are done and we are ready for a topic wise analysis. So, comes the phase 2 

2nd phase – take out questions from last 15 years and solve them one by one. Do wikipedia search, take hints from books, google, IIPA journals, internet videos, but somehow formulate the best answers. 

3rd phase – Now, comes the final stage — we will now take topic wise issues from PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION and solve them one by one while amalgamating the whole ideas from thinkers, Indian context, text books, our search history everything. 

This thing may take 10-15 days to complete. I’ll just keep on posting continuously my whole work here, as now I’m going to make all notes online here only. 

Also, you may be worried about GS preliminary examination, but I don’t care much about GS pre, because its a part of Mains preparation. If I don’t clear pre. then I am more than happy to wait 1 year more than lament for not being able to get chance in Mains. But, anyway that’s not going to happen, as I’m comfortably scoring 100+ in GS1 and 175+ in GS2 of preliminary examination, so I will clear it surely. 

Thanks 🙂 (next post will be in 2-3 hours as I’ll keep on posting chapter wise, as I proceed) 

18th June 2014, Only for PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION people :)

Behavioural and Systems Approach (concise and simple notes on Chapter 6 Mohit Bhattacharya’s book New Horizons of Public Administration) 

Introduction – 

Organisation theories are generally based on studies on private firms. Public administration is different from them because of 3 factors i.e. democracy, interdependent organisations and public welfare as the ultimate goal in public administration while rent seeking is main goal in private organisations. 

Traditional Theory – 

Emphasized on mechanical aspects – scientific work methods i.e. diving of work into parts, skill development and training of workers in specific fields, maximization of output by limited labor (Taylor), efficiency by Weber (bureaucracy), and psychological aspects such as piece by piece pay incentive, monetary motivation’s (Taylor). (overemphasis on this method leads to rigidity, lack of innovation, motivation, disaffection and alienation in workers)

Human Relations Approach – 

Main experiment by Elton Mayo – Hawthorne Experiments which proved physical conditions have less affect than mental or psychological conditions on work output. Concept of informal work group, and independent decisions being taken by it. 

Neo-Human Relationists – (Argyris, McGregor and Herzberg)

– Giving discretion to lower level members, and their involvement in decision making process, sensitivity training, Maslow’s theory of motivation – Hierarchy of needs (social needs, economic needs, survival, self-esteem and self-actualization needs) 

CHESTER BERNARD – 

Definition of organisation – ‘a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons’ 

Weber – formal positional authority and Bernard says authority comes from ‘acceptance’ or orders by subordinates. (4 rules for this, study from book)

Persuasion as means of motivation, underplayed role of coercion, Incentives (monetary) work to a limit

Simon – ‘satisfying’ behavior concept i.e. satisfaction more important goal than maximization or ideal return

Bakke – (fusion process) Individual uses organisation (personalising process) for his goals, and organisation uses individual (socialising process) for furthering its own goals. 

Chris Argyris says that these 2 things should match upto a limit, so that individual don’t feel alienated. 

McGregor (Theory x and Theory Y) – (organisation X is rigid, strictly follows hierarchy, rules, regulations, vertical and single command, considers people as work-avoiding and not wanting to take decisions) 

(Organisation Y is just opposite of X having more free flow of information, horizontal communication, division of authority, considers man as self-actualizing and self-controlling, initiative, creativity, less manipulation)

Systems Approach 

This approach says that independent theories and concepts have developed in different fields of study, while having no co-relation with each other. So, Systems approach is to join all those concepts and provide a broad view of system as a whole. (knowledge integration) 

– some aspects or fields of organisation are – technical, structural, human and social-psychological. 

– System – ” A set or arrangement of things so related or connected as to form a unity of organic whole”. Types – closed (mechanical, and physical, high entropy, tendency towards disorganization) and open (biological and social, move towards higher level of organisation), boundary concept 

Relevance of Organisation Theory 

– studying complex public organisations (as a system) – 5 parts of it – objectives, environment, resources, components and management. 

– used by MP Follet, Chester Bernard and Herbert Simon in decision making concept. 

– situational theory (systems theory pertains to it), contingency (again systems approach) and traditional – “one best way” (Taylorism, bureaucracy, classical design theory etc. – good in every situation) 

Situational Theories – 

2 components (technology and environment) 

Technology – 

Definition – techniques used by organisations in work-flow activities to transform Inputs into Outputs 

1st experiment on use of technology on 100 firms which were categorised as Unit or small batch, medium production or large batch, and continuous production process (with more technological input in successive firm) 

– (a) Level of authority increased with technology, i.e from Unit to Process. 

– (b) Manager/personnel increases with more complex systems. 

– (c) Span of control of first line supervisor increased from unit to mass, and then decreased from mass to process. (very important for any organisation based on its level of technology use , i..e. small span or large span is regressive)

– bureaucratic type of organisation were those with more span of supervising i.e. mass production ones’ 

Importance – technology changes organisation design or else organisation changes or adopts different technology. 

Environment and Organisation – 

Operating environment – ‘Set of conditions outside the organisation that have direct impact on the day-to-day functioning of organisation’ (it generally again sets the stability level and complexity level in organisation – very simple concept as stable environment – complex and bureaucratic system based on fixed rules, and vice-versa)

Studies – (1st one) 

Two types of systems of management ‘mechanistic’ (everything sub-contracted, clear division, functional roles are defined interatction vertical between superior and subordinate) and ‘organic’ ( no breaking down of work, no specific area or power, more interaction laterally as well as vertically) (Same as theory X and Y – half of PUB AD is repetition of same things with different headings

2nd one 

Concepts of differentiation (division of organisation into subsystems i.e. structural division and partly behavioral), Integration(unity of effort among subsystems to achieve organisations task – could be done by plan or persuasion and adjustment according to stability of system) and again environment (sub sections are market i.e. sales, technical-economic i.e. production and scientific i.e. research and development functions) – Again since these experiments are on commercial ventures, so they are miles away from public departments working 😛 

Now, again the concept is that any work has to be first differentiated into subsystems and then integrated later. Environment will decide what are optimal conditions for doing it, and the level of achieving differentiation and integration will decide the effectiveness in end. 

Overview – (most important section of whole chapter, read fully again and again so no short notes of it) 😛

Closed and Open Models (CM and OM) – 

5 aspects of comparison (i) Social role of organisation (closed – bureaucracy inside, client outside the system, in open both are same, and organisational goals and society goal are embedded in each other)

  (ii) organisational view of man ( Similar to theory X and Y stated above, X is closed and Y is open system)

(iii) concept of organisational structure (closed – rigid, heavy formalism, hierarchical structure and ordered communication like secretariat and open – participative, free flow of communication, and flexible relations)

 (iv) concept of organisational order (closed system – order is imposed from top, and in open it grows out of human behaviour automatically)

(v) perceptions of the environment ( closed system – inward looking and finding stability inside the organisation considering external effects nil – like public protests have no impact on ears of government and Indian Bureaucracy while Open system – integrates itself with environment and reorders internal structure and operations in respect to environment) 

– organisations and environments keep changing, and they along with people try to survive and learn from their mistakes. 

That’s all the summary of this chapter 🙂 In end we can say that if Government doesn’t mend its ways like heavy corruption by congress government ministers during UPA 2 then public gives its verdict. So, be open system 😛 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some news events of 17th June :)

1)      Topic – Agriculture GS paper -3

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/soy-seed-crunch-hits-farmers-maharashtra

This immensely important article describes how farmers are getting dependent for things such as seeds on private companies, for which earlier they were self-sufficient. They have lost traditional knowledge of saving a portion of crops for seeding next year. The seeds purchased from markets require exorbitant money.

This year, due to hailstorms the crop of soya got destroyed, thus creating huge seed crunch in Maharashtra. But, since no farmer has saved seed of his previous year crop, now they have no option but to sow single crop of cotton, which is highly uncertain crop. Also, this will result in fewer prices due to more cultivation of a single crop, while soya price will increase more. In case of disaster on cotton crops, whole state farmers will suffer later.

 

2)      Topic – Environment

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/co2-emissions-asean-transport-sector-will-double-2050-warns-energy-agency

The major steps needed to reduce C02 emission are

–          Using cleaner fuels, biodiesels

–          Efficient and hybrid engines, CNG

–          Public transport to be encouraged

–          Dedicated fright corridor, more freight to be transported by railways or waterways

–          Large buses replacing smaller ones.

 

3)      Mrunal Blog –

http://mrunal.org/2014/06/current-may-week1p2-economy-financial-resolution-authority-reena-benerjee-committee-bancassurance-minor-bank-accounts-enforcement-day.html

 

 

Economics :) 17th June 2014

Labour Regulation

–          Small firms more jobs, large firms more capital

–          Organised – less jobs in India

–          Construction – main reason for surge in unorganised sector

 

Reasons for no – jobs in organised manufacturing

–          Strict labour laws, EPL (employment protection legislation)

–          India labour abundant – but still companies prefer capital intensive (characteristic of richer countries)

–          Definition of formal sector – more than 10 workers ( advantages are social security and benefits and regulated working hours)

–          Contracts are being rolled over in India easily

–          On the job learning is required

–          Permanent employment – reduces firms flexibility and workers incentive to learn or exercise effort.

–          Labour laws – reasonable working conditions and safety at work ( why can’t be repealed – because of lack of political consensus)

–          Extend reach of informal sector , RSBY (Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana) and NPS (New Pension Scheme) and Unemployment insurance schemes are government schemes.

Informality of employment in India

Extent –

–          85% informal, exclude agriculture then 70%

–          33% informal even in public sector

–          Lack of written contracts in informal sector, no paid leave or social security

Causes –

–          Exclusion from formal jobs and voluntarily opting out by workers

–          Burdensome cost of registration for formal sector

–          Less capital with companies

–          Formal more costly due to labour institutions and taxation and regulations

–          Capital used to purchase machines so that people are below 10

Consequences –

–          Less productivity/labour in informal sector

–          Formal sector – train, impart education and skill so value added is 10 times for a formal employee in formal sector than a non-formal employee in formal sector

–          Poverty and informality coexist and strengthen each other – loss of income due to illness etc.

–          Firms – more flexibility and lesser cost in informal sector but also lack worker loyalty and skill building. Also, are plagued by frequent strikes and wage increment demands.

–          Loss of revenue – If informal becomes formal tax base will increase for government thus more tax and also Social schemes will be more effective due to wider reach.

Labour laws as Impediment

–          Manufacturing key driver for labour abundant economies ( India lags behind and more capital and skill intensive in India)

–          More unorganised manufacturing

–          More employment in Smaller Firms (84% in India and 27.5% in Malaysia and 24.8% in China)

–          1990’s economic reforms abolished license regime still less growth in manufacturing. Major reasons are –

(a)    Strict labour laws (sheer size of laws, scope, complexity and inconsistency – 45 legislations in whole India right now)

(b)   Infrastructure bottlenecks

(c)    Credit constrains

–          Labour regulations are only for formal sector

–          As size of firms increases, number of regulations increases so they keep themselves smaller

–          More than 100 workers ( need state permission to fire according to IDA – Industrial Disputes Act)

–          IDA also makes changing work conditions harder.

 

TFP (Total Factor Productivity) – Aspects such as technology used + worker efficiency + intangible aspects such as tacit knowledge + organisational capabilities and trust taken into account.

–          India (states with stringent labour laws have low growth of manufacturing and less TFP) and they have more smaller firms

–          Contractual labour and outsourcing (non-core jobs) are way out of strict labour regulations (counter view) but, evidences and empirical data suggests that labour laws are hindering growth.

The Mauritian Miracle

–          Flexible labour laws in (Export Processing Zones) EPZs

(1)    Any company could opt for EPZs i.e. no specific geographical boundary required

(2)    10% tax holiday for foreign investors, ease of export and import of raw materials and finished goods, no restriction on profit repatriation + assurance that labour unrest minimum and wage increase moderate

(3)    Firms can adjust labour force and realistic compensations and flexibility in working hours

(4)    Women participation promoted

Result – around 2/3rd of Mauritius population was unemployed in 1960 and in 1990 all of them got employment and GDP grew by more than 5% annually

 

Services not creating enough jobs –

–          High productivity (i.e. value addition in services but low job growth)

–          Impediments could be – Same as manufacturing i.e. labour laws, infra and funding + regulations

–          High skill and education required

–          So conditions are such that employers are seeking skilled workers whereas paradoxically millions are seeking jobs

–          NSDM (national skill development programme) imparts vocational employment oriented training to 5 crore people in next 10 years through state skill missions and private participation (PPP, NGOs and for profit vocational training institutes)

–          Also quality of primary education needs to be improved.

Need for formal Apprenticeships

Importance –

–          Tapping demographic dividend

–          Earning while learning

–          Higher education challenges are – cost, quality and scale + no work ready force

Transition in labour force is from agriculture to non-agriculture, from rural to urban, from unorganised to organised, from school to working, from subsistence self-employment to wage employment

Japan, US, UK, Germany used this method successfully (Germany – Dual classroom + Workplace)

Advantages –

–          Low cost, increased productivity, greater loyalty and motivation and more retention

Indian case –

–          Complex and burdensome rules

–          Tight norms so that companies do not hire cheap labour in guise of apprenticeship programme – but now this need to be relaxed and corporates to be incentivised to impart on job training and education

Solution –

(a)    Simple regulation – single window clearance for pan-India apprenticeship

(b)   Wider reach – Many sectors are barred such as services from having Apprentices

(c)    Flexibility to companies – ‘rigid worker apprentice ratio’ and long schemes such as 4 years needed which need to be deregulated. Also, high penalties for small violations

(d)   Dual system of training – Colleges – theoretical and companies – practical

(e)   Active exchanges – portals matching employers and apprentices

Way to Evidence based better policy

–          Education increases productivity, skill and participation, SSA (sarva siksha abhiyan) has increased teacher student ratio, primary school access, infra and student enrolment ratio but quality of education has deteriorated

–          So, change in school governance needed, so education policy needs to shift from providing better access towards ‘educational outcomes’

Inputs –

–          Infra necessary (but doesn’t count much from education quality improvement) same is case with Mid Day Meal scheme which increases student retention and enrolment but not education quality.

–          So, only weakness is pedagogy and governance (main cause of hampering better outcomes)

Pedagogy – (science of education, teaching and classroom instruction)

–          ‘completing the textbook’ – does not mean learning

–          So interventions required towards learning (no formal teacher required) and cost effective than the large investment in standard schooling system

Governance –

–          High teacher absence (25% in rural areas)

–          High fiscal cost due to teacher absence

–          Improving monitoring and supervision (tenfold increase in return on investment)

–          Motivating teachers by awarding good performances (performance linked pay) 15-20 times more effective than increasing teachers numbers

–          So, performance depends more on structure of pay

Way to Policy

1.)    Learning outcomes be the explicit goal, high level independent monitoring for that

2.)    ‘Universal functional literacy and numeracy that allow children to ‘read to learn’. So, locally hired short-term teaching assistants required which are also cost effective

3.)    Governance – better monitoring and performance measurement + management + clear goals + rewards for achieving goals

4.)    Next generation (demographic dividend) should be literate and skilful

5.)    Cost effective policies required due to highly fiscally constrained environment

Cautions to preparedness

–          ‘Business as usual’ – high fallouts as timely and right kind of preparations are needed.

Problems –

–          Infra, education and institutional structures such as business regulation and labour laws

–          Informal labour higher and labour frictions due to lack of social security also higher

–          High inequality and less growth rate

–          Skill mismatch with requirement

–          Few quality jobs increment – most of them are in construction and informal sector.

Reforms –

–          Improve infra, education and institutional impediments of labour laws and business regulations

–          Agricultural reforms – larger holding, more capital investment and technological update, non-farm jobs increment, rural entrepreneurship i.e. horticulture, dairy and meat to be promoted

–          Apprenticeship in Manufacturing industries to be favoured directly after school.

–          Fill vacuum created by china in Semi­­-skilled manufacturing

–          Equitable growth and sustainable development and formal sector increment will reduce social frictions

Decline –

–          Failure to attain above will have disastrous effects with increased government spending on social sector and huge burden of population on agricultural sector and also high inequality with less inclusive growth.

 

Next Chapter – Human Development In India

–          Enlarge ‘people’s choices’

–          Objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives.

Introduction –

–          Focus both income and non-income dimensions

–          Challenge – formulate  ‘inclusive’ plans to bridge regional, social and economic disparities (i.e. inclusive development)

–          Comparison b/w India and World’s other countries on key parameters + Domestic spending + comparing different components of HDI and their relative importance with each other

Human and Gender development –

–          HDI – 0.554 of India in 2013 UNDP report (Medium Human Development Category but below average)

–          3 factors are taken into account ‘life expectancy’, ‘knowledge access’ and ‘quality of life’ i.e. ‘Gross nation income per capita at PPP.

–          Rank 136/187 countries

–          MMR 200/1 lakh mothers

–          Female labour force participation is 29% while male have more than 80%

–          MPI (Multidimensional poverty index) 0.283 just equal to Pakistan and Bangladesh (MDI identifies deprivations in the same household in education and health and living standard)

–          MPI (53.7% of India is affected by it)

–          Participatory process needed for inclusion of excluded electorates from decision making process

–          Internal conflicts dealt with development and redistribution (operation green hunt was criticized by many)

–          RTE and MGNREGA had impact on rural migration and gave hope to agricultural labourers in non-seasonal employment

Inclusive development

–          Central expenditure on ‘Social services and rural development’ is 18% of total expenditure

–          General government (i.e. centre + states) 22-25% in which education gets around 46% and health around 19%

–          In terms of GDP – social sector spending is 6.8 to 7% in which education got 3.3% recently and health just 1.36% (this data includes both government and private sector expenditure)

–          Government health expenditure is very low, and lowest in BRICS grouping with private sector in India spending double of public sector

Poverty

–          Country’s policy shifted from ‘wage employment’ to ‘self-employment’

–          NSSO (National Sample Survey Office) carries out large sample surveys on household expenditure every 5 years

–          Definition of poverty on Monthly Per Capital Expenditure (MPCE)

–          Tendulkar Committee – Rs 673 Rural and Rs 860 Urban MPCE is poverty line. (Would have changed in new Economic survey)

–          % of poor decreased from 37.2% in 2004-05 to 29.8% in 2009-10 (absolute numbers also decreased)

–          IMR – from 58 – 44 (current) in 2011

–          Indication in fall in deprivation from above data

–          Rangarajan Committee to ‘review methodology for measurement of poverty’

Inequality

–          Income Gini coefficient – deviation of distribution of income (or consumption) among the individuals within a country from a perfectly equal distribution. It is 36.8 for India lower than USA and Brazil

–          Quintile income ratio – Measure of average of richest 20% of population to the poorest 20% (5.6 for India better than USA, Australia, UK etc.)

Rural Urban Gap

–          Rs 1281 for rural and Rs 2401 for urban MPCE average showing rural urban gap in consumption

–          But, rate of increase in consumption is higher in rural areas thus showing the bridging of the gap.

–          57% rural expenditure is on food and 44% of urban is on food thus showing rural people spend more on food

Employment

–          More jobs need to be created

–          Women labour participation is low

–          Educated youths are going to increase the labour force soon who were not there

–          Twelfth plan approach paper stresses on ‘Skill development’ which will increase the production and savings

Unemployment

–          CDS (Current Daily Status)

–          (LFPR) Labour Force Participation Rate declined and also unemployment rates were lower in 2009-10

–          Regular wage/employment/salaried workers – 15.6%, casual labour – 33% approx. and Self-employed 51%

–          Also organised sector contains 80% men and 20% women

Comparative Human Development of States

–          In this comparison is done basically for rates of Growth, Poverty, Rural Urban Disparity, Unemployment, Health – IMR, life expectancy, birth rate and death rates, education, financial inclusion and Key social sector programmes performance. Except growth all other indicators for Bihar are worst or very poor. Kerala topped all except unemployment where it is again topper but in negative sense.

–          Remarks – need to rethink on criteria for devolution of funds

(Income distance) i.e. inequality in income generation against national average 12th FC and (Fiscal capacity distance) no idea what it means used in 13th FC and population are used, while HDI and inclusion indicators are neglected.

–          Criteria of ‘special category of states’ needs to be revised (hilly and difficult terrain, low pop. Density, high ST pop. Strategic location along border, economic and infra backwardness and non-viable state finances) because Bihar is low on almost every indicator yet it is not a Special Category State.

Social Economic and Caste Census

–          Saxena committee – ‘Methodology for a BPL census in rural areas’

–          SECC (Socio Economic and Caste Census)

–          Use of AADHAR to check duplicates

–          DEO (Data entry operators) technically qualified and computer literate.

–          Public scrutiny ‘claims and objection stage’ for recommended list of BPL

–          Prof. Abhijit Sen Committee – for examination of SECC data and recommend appropriate methodology for determining beneficiaries.

Poverty alleviation and employment generation programmes

–          MGNREGA – One hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. 1/3 participation of women is must

–          Encourage sustainable development

Effects –

–          Increased bargaining power of labour

–          Reduction in Distress Migration

–          Improved Economy

–          CPI-AL i.e. consumer price Index of Agricultural labour is index with wage of MGNREGA

New initiatives

–          More activities permitted

–          Electronic fund Management System (eFMS) to reduce delay in wage payment

–          Above 100 days in drought areas

–          Using AADHAR to prevent leakage

–          Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC) and MGNREGA converged

SGSY (Swarnjayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana)

–          Self-employment programme (mix of government subsidy and bank credit)

–          50% SC/ST and 40% women participation must

–          RSETI – rural self-employment training Institutes set in every district

Restructured as NRLM (National Rural Livelihood mission)

–          1 member (preferably women of BPL family to be brought under SHG’s) and setting up of SHG’s

–          Capacity building of every stakeholder i.e. government, bank, NGO, SHG’s etc.

–          Capital subsidy for incentivising thrift and self-credit mechanism to be developed

–          Security net for rural landless labourers

–          Swarnjayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana is similar with Amalgamation of various Schemes – Community Development, wage employment and skill training etc. 

15th June 2014 Major Current Events related to UPSC syllabus :)

1)      Topic – Changes in critical Geographical factors (including water bodies and ice-caps) (GS-1)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/climate-change-almost-triple-risk-extreme-indian-ocean-weather-events

 

Concept of positive IOD’s is discussed. IOD’s refer to Indian Ocean Dipole in which cold waters accumulate in Indian Ocean near North Eastern part of Australia and which results in severe droughts in Australia and Indonesia and also severe floods in East Africa. This phenomenon of Positive-IOD’s is exacerbated by climate changed induced due to global warming, and is similar to El-Nino.

Question – What are the typical changes that are occurring in Indian ocean due to global warming?

 

2)      Topic – random

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/letters-june-16-30-2014

 

In this article following points are mentioned –

(a)    Pine trees intensive plantations in fallow, waste and agricultural abandoned land in Himachal Pradesh. Pine tree thorns are extremely inflammable and cause forest fires and they are not cattle feed nor fertiliser. Also, their thorns fill up the ground thus inhibiting the natural undergrowth.

(b)   Green Myth – Refers to the myth that all green label’s need not be environment friendly.

(c)    Again here the question is asked on Growth vs. Development. Installing factories creates a lot of pollution and if environmental hazards related to industrial growth are not taken care of in start then the whole exercise becomes futile.

(d)   Since, more than 55% of India’s population depends on Agriculture, so weather forecast and information decimation becomes a must to avoid the suicides of farmers.

(e)   Instead of Mega solar projects – Solar installations should be installed on roof tops.

(f)     Cycles are eco-friendly, health friendly. But, Kolkata police banned them because they are slow and obstructing the general traffic. This, decision should be revoked.

(g)    Poor people have access to government hospitals which are overcrowded and understaffed with less facilities and medicines. Private hospitals contain all but charge hefty fees. Government should take some step so that the private hospitals come in reach of poor.

(h)   Diseases, economic problems, destitution are common for old-age people. More old age homes needs to be established with community cooperation and co-operative model. Citizens should be involved and more private investment is needed, thus requiring favourable government policies.

 

3)      Topic – Science and Technology – developments and their effects in everyday life (GS-3)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/scientists-make-dna-barcode-malaria-parasite

Article talks about Genome sequencing, DNA sequencing data which results into tracing of the origins of any species. This topic could be asked in Biotechnology also.

Question – Describe the procedure of DNA sequencing and its uses?

 

4)      Topic – Issues relating to health (GS-2), Major crops and cropping pattern in Punjab and Technology mission i.e. Green Revolution side effects (GS-3)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/punjab-farmers-try-religious-route-shun-pesticides

Use of excessive pesticides has resulted in fatal diseases such as cancer, reproductive disorder, and birth of mentally retarded children. Economic problems relate to high price of pesticides thus resulting debt trap. A shift to organic farming is necessary and religious means such as accepting organic foods only in Gurdwara’s could be an effective solution.

Question – Has Green Revolution actually helped in increasing GDP while producing various side effects such as health problems costing millions and creating social cost? Comment.

 

5)      Topic – Indian Economic and issues and constrains (GS-3)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/how-rural-india-spends

Inflation persistent at more than 8% became major hindrance in growth story of India. We, know that supply side constrains, storage capabilities and rural infrastructure, speculations are important but also important is to predict the changing consumption pattern of rural and urban areas to effectively tackle with the inflation. CPI consists of 50% weightage of food products and if food becomes costlier so it effects a lot of other sections like wages, health, and growth rate.

Question – What measures need to be taken to tackle the persistent inflation in Indian Economy?

 

6)      Topic – Sustainable development and Indian Rural Economy (GS-3)

http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/bagh-and-its-legacy-print

Non-farm jobs are necessary for employing the extra labour and increasing the productivity, thus enhancing GDP. Also, it will result in income enhancement, and social peace and improve in quality of life. Bagh printing is one such non-farm activity, where cotton and silk clothes are printed with totally indigenous methods using organic colours and water. This system shows the elegance and rich past of our country and its skilled work force in textile industry. Many materials are exported and imported between different states thus showing inter-regional dependence.

This system also has many ill-effects of Indian economy such as non-participation of women, environmental hazards i.e. pollution of river water while having positive aspect such as waste management and original skill work having good demand.

Question – With reference to some non-farm related activities, discuss how the demographic dividend that India will gain could be properly utilised in rural areas?

 

7)      Topic – Indian Economy (GS-3)

http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/centre-to-review-all-ftas-and-sezs/article6115133.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly

Free Trade Agreements (FTA’s) and Special Economic Zones (SEZ’s) are two important tools for enhancing the economic growth. But, all FTS’s have not been favourable to India and SEZ’s have failed to develop full potential and these needs to be reviewed. Companies act contains several strains that lower the ease to do business in India. Thus, meetings with stakeholders to discuss the major impediments to trade are necessary.

Question – Critically evaluate the major rules and regulations of Companies Act. Is it business friendly?

 

8)      Topic – Government Budgeting (GS-3)

http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/inclusive-budget-option-for-modi-govt/article6115073.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly

Decision to increase the threshold of taxable income to 5 lakhs from 2 lakhs will result in more money availability in economy thus fuelling inflation, which in turn results in deterioration of savings. Common man who is not in formal sector is affected most, as he’s not benefitted at all by tax relaxation but it results in food inflation directly affecting him. Thus, answer is widening tax base, and reducing tax rates, which will result in more people included in formal financial mechanism.

Question – Discuss the direct taxes and indirect taxes and their distribution between Centre and States?

 

9)      Topic – Indian Economy (GS-3) and Effects of politics of other countries on India and its diaspora.

http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/iraq-crisis-no-cause-for-panic-mayaram/article6114625.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly

Instability in Iraq has resulted in several issues such as increasing prices of crude oil and supply security, Indian diaspora in Iraq and their safety, diversifying crude oil sources and importance of indigenous development of energy resources.

Question – Identify and discuss the major energy reserves present in world and India’s relation with those countries about the effective utilisation of those resources? (Topic – Distribution of Key Natural resources across the world GS-1)

 

10)   Topic – Conservation (GS-3)

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Coimbatore/the-star-tortoise-of-segur-plateau/article6114183.ece?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS&utm_campaign=RSS_Syndication&utm_reader=feedly

Indian Star Tortoise found in Nilgiri Hills i.e. Blue Mountains situated in Western Ghats at the conjunction of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are very rich in flora and fauna. Indian Star Tortoise helps in seed dispersion and is entirely herbivorous. It is a species of least concern, but that status is changing fast due to trade in exotic species and culinary purposes. Habitat destruction due to forest fires, grazing, floods, bush fires have resulted in lessening the numbers.

Question – What is IUCN red list and which Indian species are critically endangered? Identify the places where these species are found in India.

 

11)   Topic – Ethical dilemmas (GS-4 Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude)

http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/poll20140614#When:16:29:00Z

A very interesting read about the ethical technologies such as robotic cars and questions such as programming codes asking weather in case of an unavoidable accident, the car should try to save maximum lives or the lives of those sitting inside the car. This is the question to you also, that which option would you choose and why?

 

12)   Topic – Ethics (GS-4)

http://blog.practicalethics.ox.ac.uk/2014/06/essendon-doping-and-bad-arguments-about-doping/

Direct question – Should drugs be legalised in sports?

The answer contains the ethical aspects such as the injuries faced by sportspersons force them to take drugs for safety and health but they can’t take it because of ban on such drugs. Also, excessive use of painkillers and analgesics is directly affecting their health. Regarding bad effect of legalising drugs on children, the article says that many things such as alcohol, smoking are banned for minors until the age when they are able to decide what’s right and wrong. Also, anti-drug rules just favour the illegal market and increase the crime rate.

 

 

25th May 2014, Important Current Event related to GS :)

Paper 1

(1)    Topic – Culture and Heritage of India

Buddhism and its thoughts are very important from preliminary point of view. Every year 2-3 questions are asked on Buddhism and Jainism. Here I’ll write a short summary of important points on Buddhist thoughts. Very-Very Important topic.

 

(a)    Buddhism is a ‘way of life’ rather than religion, because no idol worship is done.

(b)   4 Noble Truths are basic teachings of Buddha which are truth of suffering, the truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the end of suffering, and the truth of the path that leads to the end of the suffering.

(c)    In Buddhism desire and ignorance lies at the root of suffering. Desires are craving pleasure, material goods and immortality which can never be fulfilled, and which ultimately result in rebirth of individual again and again to suffer more in this world.

(d)   End of suffering is Nirvana or Moksha in which a person attains total enlightenment and transcends the rebirth cycle.

(e)   In order to attain Nirvana, the path that to be followed is Noble Eightfold path of Right Understanding, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

(f)     The above are divided into Good moral conduct, mediation and mental development, and wisdom or insight. (you think yourself, which of the above 8 will come in which of these 3 sections)

 

Then there is concept of “Karma” which says that you will be rewarded counteractions on the actions that you do. Good actions bring happiness and bad actions bring unhappiness. Sleeping, eating etc. are neutral Karma with no benefits or costs.

 

Cycle of Rebirth – this concept says that living beings are reborn in 3 fortunate realms and 3 unfortunate realms.  Those with positive Karma are born into Demigod, God and Men. And Negative Karma are born in Animal, Ghost and Hell. The realm of men only offers “Nirvana” i.e. an opportunity to achieve enlightenment.

 

 

http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/5minbud.htm

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105063

 

 

 

Paper 2  

(1)    Topic – Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of Various Constitutional Bodies. Here in this article the role of CAG is given. Very beautiful article. I would say that you guys should read it whole rather than reading a summary.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105068

 

 

Paper 3

(1)    Topic – Indian Economy

Banking sector is facing problems in capital adequacy, and incremental growth in NPA’s (Non-Performing Assets). Also, some major challenges are target for agricultural credit, MSME credit, housing credit, education credit, lending to minority communities, and financial inclusion. There are many infrastructural projects installed by PSB’s help, which are halted due to various factors thus turning into NPA’s.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105043

 

 

 Watch the banking sector report card of this financial year below. Very important, and please understand the terms such as Adjusted Net Banking Credit (ANBC), Priority Sector Lending (PSL) , Gross Non-performing Assets (GNPA). Also list out what Priority Sector contains and what is subsection lending in the gross 40% lending target. Very important for preliminary.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105066

 

 

 

India is on high growth rate, and urbanisation is increasing. But, with urbanisation problems of waste management, and pollution control has also came upfront, which needs to be solved. “Waste to Energy” is one such initiative in which waste materials are to be segregated and converted into energy by various new technological advancements. This will also keep water bodies less polluted and potable.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105057

 

 

 

Depository receipts are one of the instruments which make it easier to invest in foreign companies or to get foreign investment. When India was facing financial crunch in 1991, and our capital market was not opened to direct FII’s then this innovating scheme of issuing Depository Receipts was introduced. Now, the committee formed for reviewing of current scheme has made many recommendations for making it easier to trade through DR route.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105062

 

 

(2)    Check what comes under Consumer Price Index (CPI) which is hovering around 8-9% these days. I’m not sure if heavy industrial products such as iron and steel, automobiles, electricity etc. are counted in list or not. Anyway the price list is maintained online, and is supplied by NSSO offices in urban areas and postal department in rural areas. Also, the annual change is used to measure the overall inflation and is used to index the prices, salaries and pensions of employees. Also, this is one of main measure to ensure sound monetary and fiscal policies as without this data, determining rates and policies will be impossible. This CPI also helps in measuring changes in real values and thus real inflation or growth in GDP. Very important for pre.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105043

 

 

(3)    Public Sector Insurance companies LIC, General Insurance have a fairly large market share in the insurance sector. Private sector keeps on complaining for partiality, and asks for the disinvestment in these public sector companies so that the sector can grow. Our insurance sector has far less penetration than global standards, and this is the major cause of distress in social sector, including agriculture and life sectors.

Check what challenges does insurance sector face for its growth and penetration. What role does it play in nation building and social peace? What are major companies working in this area? List different types of Insurances such as accidental insurance, motor insurance, health insurance, life insurance etc.?

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105051

 

 

(4)     The Indices of Industrial Production for the Mining, Manufacturing and Electricity sectors for the month of March 2014 stand at 145.8, 204.8 and 173.0 respectively, with the corresponding growth rates of (-) 0.4%, (-) 1.2% and 5.4% as compared to March 2013 (Statement I). The cumulative growth in the three sectors during April-March 2013-14 over the corresponding period of 2012-13 has been (-) 0.8%, (-) 0.8% and 6.1% respectively.

 

Check what is IIP(index of Industrial production). The above data shows that Mining and Manufacturing have slowed while only electricity generation has increased. What are the major reasons for this slowdown? Is it monetary policy of RBI or supply side constrains or lack of fiscal policies such as relaxation in FDI, forest and environmental clearances, easy land acquisition, availability of infrastructure. Ponder over.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=105050

 

Some Important Issues Topic Wise :)

Majority of questions in Mains examination will be asked directly from the resources that I’m providing here. You can answer 60% of the questions if you are fully aware of Current Affairs and their relation to the GS syllabus. Even in remaining 40% which are factual and traditional answers, giving relevant current examples fetches more marks. So, as its said UPSC syllabus is new every year, because current issues keep changing which make up a huge chunk of questions in mains. 

I’ve provided major points and summary of the topic. Please go through the summary and if you still have doubt then open the link and read it. Will provide the next set tomorrow, so finish it today only. Thanks 🙂 

 

GS PAPER 1

1)      TOPIC – IMPORTANT GEOPHYSICAL PHENOMENA SUCH AS EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMI, VOLCANIC ACTIVITY, CYCLONE ETC., GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES AND THEIR LOCATION- CHANGES IN CRITICAL GEOGRAPHICAL FEATURES (INCLUDING WATER BODIES AND ICE CAPS) AND IN FLORA AND FAUNA AND THE EFFECT OF SUCH CHANGES.

This article talks about the climate change and its effects on the Environment, flora and fauna and on water bodies and ice caps. Its main points are –

(a)    The permafrost is thawing. This results in a lot of land collapse, and thus infrastructure damage. Even 1 degree change in temperature will have a lot of effect on permafrost land. Check in Wikipedia what is permafrost.

(b)   Ice and snow is melting in Alaska glaciers, and in Polar Regions.  Temperature rise has caused a lot of forest fires, and thus increase in amount of CO2 producing accelerating effect on global warming.

(c)    Cyclones and Hurricanes have become common since, they are originated in warmer oceanic regions getting their energy from water vapours and moistures. They are bringing flash floods, devastations, and have increased in numbers.  Check how the hurricanes and tornadoes are formed.

(d)   Wetter areas are getting more rains and dryer areas are getting lesser rains. Thus floods and draughts occur side by side now and have become more common.

(e)   Ground water is depleting faster due to global warming and population explosion during this century where our population exploded from 2 Billion in 1950’s to 7 Billion in 2010.

(f)     Second article talks about untimely rains and increase in number of cyclones in eastern coast of India. Phailin, Helen and Lehar hit last year. These resulted in loss of life and property and also of agricultural produce.

Link – (a)  http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/climate-change-pushing-people-out-their-homelands-us-says-report  (b) http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/untimely-rains-claims-lives-nine-persons-andhra-pradesh

2)      TOPIC – DISTRIBUTION OF KEY NATURAL RESOURCES ACROSS THE WORLD.

Adani’s have got green signal for mega project of coal mining in queensland Australia. This mine is to be developed for imports to India, for supplying its coal requirements for power generation. Again debate is being done on Environment vs Development as local administration wants boost in economy by railroad and mine development, while Environmental reports suggest adverse impact on groundwater, flora, fauna of region, and Marine park of great Barrier reef.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/green-signal-adanis-mega-coal-mine-project-queensland

 

 

GS PAPER 2

1)      TOPIC – ISSUES RELATED TO DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL SECTOR/SERVICES RELATING TO EDUCATION, HEALTH AND HUMAN RESOURCE

Supreme court has ordered separate toilets for boys and girls in schools. Dropout rates are very high, and this is done to provide basic amenities of water and toilet and thus reduce dropouts. Most girls leave school after lunch due to lack of toilets. This judgement is in accordance with RTE Act.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/all-schools-must-have-separate-toilets-girls-and-boys-supreme-court

2)      Same topic as above.

Alcohol consumption results in 5.1% deaths annually around the globe. It results in violence, injury and diseases such as liver failure and cancer to the consumers. Reports suggests that alcohol consumption is rising in South East Asian countries and Wester pacific regions, whereas its constant in America, EU and Africa.  Methods to curb the consumption include increasing taxes on alcohol, regulating the beverage industry and increasing the age limit for alcohol consumption.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/33-million-people-died-excessive-drinking-2012-who-report

3)      TOPIC – ISSUES RELATING TO POVERTY AND HUNGER, VULNERABLE SECTIONS AND SCHEMES RELATED TO THEIR WELFARE AND UPLIFTMENT.

The Adivasis and Bengali Muslim children are facing high malnutrition and hampered growth even after Central Scheme of Integrated Child Development Programme and proliferation of Aganbadi’s in the region. The main region Is the illegal status of Bengali migrants. They don’t own land, and thus can’t produce food. For food they have to depend on other sources, and their pay is meagre in tea states and other occupations of Assam. Thus, they are unable to feed themselves fully and also not able to take government schemes help due to illegal migration. Malnutrition has resulted in Stunted heights, and Wasted bodies i.e. low height to weight ratio.

GS PAPER 3

1)      TOPIC – ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESMENT

Recently Government of Maharashtra has decided to charge a certain amount of fees for EIA done by the respective bodies. This is done so that –

(a)    The committee is able to have enough money to provide its staff salaries, logistics, equipment’s, pay bills and other financial activities thus making it self financed.

(b)   This will result in no external pressure by the EIA seeking companies in terms that earlier they were providing the facilities.

(c)    Clear cut fees, will bring a sense of responsibility and transparency.

(d)   Only serious companies will come out with proposals for EIA.

Opposition points –

(a)    Process is already having a lot of corruption with EIA’s being sold

(b)   It will bring more burdens on manufacturing and industry which is facing liquidity crunch.

(c)    Present costs of getting Environment clearances are very high, and this will increase it further.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/will-maharashtras-decision-charge-fee-green-clearance-lead-greater-transparency

2)      TOPIC – ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION AND DEGRADATION

Coal mines take lands with promise of providing job and money. Then when they are unable to keep their promises, protests arise. Coal dust creates pollution, its carrying vehicles don’t cover the coal, and land degradation is common after mining. Water logging in mines create malaria and other diseases and contaminate ground water.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/angry-village-residents-close-western-coalfield-mine-nagpur

Another report regarding pollution is from the Singarauli District of MP and adjoining areas, which produce 10% of countries power, by using thermal power plants. These plants have been using Mercury containing coal, which is getting mixed up in local water bodies due to fly-ash slurry, contaiminated water wastes of industry, and fly-ash ponds mixture with water bodies. Govind Vallabh Pant Sagar, also know as Rihand Reservoir is located in the area. Also, ground water contains heavy metals such as fluoride and lead, which makes it unsafe for drinking.

NGT has ordered industries to establish RO plants for providing safe drinking water to the residents. Chimneys should have working filters, and 100% fly ash to be used and not dumped in water bodies. Consistent monitoring of Air pollution and Transportation of coal through closed conveyor belts to be done. Mercury is neurotoxin which directly affects the mental ability and results in various diseases of body such as skin allergies, kidney and lung diseases and cancer.

Link 1 – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/ngt-orders-singrauli-polluters-provide-clean-drinking-water-residents-or-face-closure

Link 2 – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/3682

3)      CONSERVATION

IUCN has listed the gharials as critically endangered species. Sand mining near the river coasts in their habitat region is making their survival more difficult due to non-availability of place for laying eggs and crushing of eggs in coastal regions. Also, lack of food is a major problem. Sand miners are dangerous and use violence to evade the state authority.

Link – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/police-seize-4000-tonnes-sand-mined-gharial-sanctuary

4)      TOPIC – DISASTER AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT – FOREST FIRES

Link 1 – Forest fires have increased due to climate change. Some areas get heavy rainfall, thus resulting in high undergrowth of grasses and which could lead to easy forest fire later. In areas of drought, accumulation of dry leaves and wood, results in quick spread of forest fires. Global warming and increased average temperature is another cause.

Historically, topography and wind movement are major causes of these fires, (triggered by lightening) but now Human induced causes such as unattended campfires, burning cigarette butt, arson, use of burning equipment could set up blaze. This resulted in burn ban in several parts.

Link 1 – http://www.downtoearth.org.in/content/forest-fires-now-more-frequent-across-globe

Link 2 – Major forest fires in India this year happened in or near national parks and sanctuaries. The names of them are –

(a)    Bandipur Tiger Reserve Karnataka (b) Nagarhole national park (c) Wayanad Sanctuary Kerala (d) Hastinapur Sanctuary near Meerut UP (e) Mount Japfu Nagaland’s Second Highest peak (f) Seshachalam and Nellama forest in AP (g) Koraput and Jeypore forest divisions in Odisha (h) Corbett National Park Uttarakhand.

This list is important for pre. Regarding forest fires, they took place due to uncontrolled growth of bamboo, unpreparedness of forest officials, lack of fire equipments, manpower and fire arresters such as fire line which lacks vegetation.

Impact – Other than destruction of green cover, and wastage of natural resources, it results in destruction of habitat of animals, thus forcing them to venture out of forests in open areas, resulting in man-animal conflicts.